Montevideo, the capital city of Uruguay, has a population of 1.3 million, more than 30% of the country’s population. Uruguay’s GDP per capita is US$16.245, which is amongst the highest in the region. In 2014, its per capita CO2 emissions were 2 tonnes. Uruguay has undergone a structural transformation of its electricity system, as such more than 90% of the electricity generated now comes from renewable sources. Transportation is the sector with the second highest energy consumption in Uruguay and is the main consumer of petroleum derivatives and the largest emitter of CO2 (MIEM n.d).
One major source for air pollution is the port of Hamburg, being one of the biggest in Europe and located in the city centre; around one third of nitrogen oxide pollution can be attributed to it (SZ 2019). Apart from measures targeting vessel and port management, Hamburg implemented also measures to reduce noise and air pollution by enhancing the general (road) traffic situation, e.g. using emission free vehicles in public transport, improving the cycling infrastructure, or set-up of intermodal sharing systems. It has set a goal to reduce overall CO2-emissions by 40 per cent in 2020 and 55 per cent in 2030.
Update November 2021
Component 1: Multimodal Charging Hub in the Ciudadela Terminal
Bus terminal located in the Old City of Montevideo
Owned by the Municipality
Several bus lines start or end their journeys there
Urban planning startegy aims at restricting vehicular traffic in the area
Opportunity charging for e-buses
Integration of charging points for other modes (e-taxis, LEVs)
Overall improvement of the terminal
Cost-efficient and smart charging solutions
The planned demo action consists of assisting with the construction of a high-capacity bus depot to charge the existing and planned e-buses overnight, taking advantage of the electricity oversupply and a reduced electricity price at night. Once the demo action starts, there will already be 30 e-buses running in Montevideo and the bidding process for the next 40 will have started. The high-capacity bus depot will integrate efficient and cost-effective smart charging solutions compliant with Combined Charging Standard (CCS) and Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP).
20 BYD e-buses
• 10 Yutong e-buses
• 2 electric 3-wheelers
• 15 e-cargo bikes
• 10 e-taxis
Trends and Drivers
As summarized above transportation is the sector with the second highest energy consumption in Uruguay, the main consumer of petroleum derivatives and the largest emitter of CO2. The contribution of transport within the energy sector emissions has increased, at a small pace between 2006 (39%) and 2012 (40%), and more significantly afterwards, reaching a share of 58% in 2018 and with prospects to account for more than 60% of energy emissions in the next decade (BEN 2018a).
According to a survey from 2017, commissioned among others by the Municipality of Montevideo, the modal split in Montevideo is as follows: two thirds are motorized (car, motorcycle, bus, etc.) and one third are active mobility (walking and cycling), of which the vast majority is on foot (34%). 32% of the trips are made by car, 4% by motorcycle, 25% by bus, 34% on foot and only 3% by bicycle.
Though population growth is estimated to be rather low (0,4% annually), it will take place in areas outside the city center, thus leading to more potential travel trips. Also, the expected economic growth (annual growth rate of 1.6% in 2017, 2.5% in 2018, and 3.7% in 2019) is a further driver of motorization rates and thus higher CO2emissions from urban mobility in Montevideo. In 2007/08 the use of public transportation rose about 30%, when a policy of subsides was introduced, keeping prices low. The Intendencia had set up an interesting financing mechanism: a transport trust, which functions as collective sector financing structure (in Spanish: fideicomiso), allowing companies to access much more beneficial conditions than if they did so individually (IM 2003; EV 2018). However, cheap ticket prices were unable to curb steady car-use growth and since 2014 ticket sales have even decreasing slightly. Not even the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) of Montevideo, implementing a new pricing system and priority corridors has led to an increase in ridership.
Among significant stakeholders and large groups of the citizenry, the priviledges of car users are not questioned, and also, implementation of new strategic concepts, such as for example the above mentioned corridors, are very controversial. Very few companies or public institutions encourage sustainable mobility solutions. In 2010, Uruguay started the active promotion of electric mobility. The installed renewable energy capacity for the generation of electricity is sufficient to satisfy the expected increase in demand according to the projections for the incorporation of electric vehicles (MIEM n.d). Against this background, there have been attempts to help advance a transportation system that actively promotes e-vehicles (EV).