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Demonstration City


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The Kathmandu valley includes 18 municipalities – including the capital city of Kathmandu – is the biggest urban centre in Nepal with a combined population of more than 2.5 million. Nepal’s GDP per capita is US$835 (2017) and the country’s CO2 emission is about less than 0.1% of global emissions (Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment, 2014). Nepal does not have fossil fuel reserves so relies on imports, at an average annual growth rate (AAGR) of more than 8% since 1991 (GGGI, 2018). The majority of Nepal’s electricity is from hydropower generated within the country. In the near future, Nepal will have surplus electricity (mainly in wet season and during off-peak hours) through hydropower projects which are in different stages of development and construction. 
Road transport dominates transport mode in Nepal, accounting for over 90% of the movement of passengers and goods (ADB, 2013). 

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Update November 2021

Conversion of diesel bus to E-bus

  • Retrofitting mainly by replacing the drive system 

  • Required conversion components will be imported and assembled locally

  • First prototype in Kathmandu

  • High scale-up potential that also support policy planning - formulation of standards and guidelines

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Update November 2021

E-3 wheelers and E-shuttle van 

Innovative aspect

  • Multi-purpose concept, i.e. with a minimal change in the technical specifications and main body, vehicle use can be varied according to the need

  • Integrated EU technology (Valeo Access 48 V drive)


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Factsheet Kathmandu

Image by Raimond Klavins

Background Information Kathmandu

Presentation Demo Kathmandu

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Working Paper Kathmandu

Image by Sanjay Hona
Image by Avel Chuklanov

User Needs Assessment

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Interview "When you design for cars, peple get left out"

DTU students´ poster

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E-mobility in public transport

In Kathmandu, a demonstration action will contribute to create an ecosystem for electric mobility in Kathmandu by demonstrating different EVs to enhance public transport, as well as suitable charging solutions and related services. It will support the integration of several innovative last-mile solutions such as 30 new and 50 remodelled E-3-wheelers s (for public transport) and 20 E-scooters/e-bikes (provided by the city/ Valeo) with 5 E-minibuses, (e.g. 8-meter length) (co-funded by the city), the buses in use currently and forthcoming E-buses. 2 diesel buses will be converted to E-buses replacing the drive system (motor, transmission and rear axle) and the suitable business model will be developed (IDIADA). The E-buses/E-minibuses and E-3-wheelers (refurbished and new with an innovative Valeo 48V all-electric prototype) are planned to run on the existing routes. As charging infrastructure is poor or non-existent in public, suitable options for charging EVs and batteries will be suggested. E-buses and E-minibuses with Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery large enough to allow for the daily operation (without charging) up to 14 hours will be sought, together with charging strategies such as plug-in overnight charging located in the depot. Several existing E-3-wheelers s will be remodelled - mainly converting lead-acid batteries into Li-ion batteries and refurbishing the chassis, assembling the vehicle parts locally. New E-3-wheelers with Li-ion batteries and fast charging system will be introduced together with innovative business model, such as battery leasing/pay-per-use model. This will provide better services for E-3-wheelers as public transportation in the city. E-scooters/e-bike sharing system, that reduce the dependence on owning private vehicles, will also be sought in the demonstration project with state-of the-art technologies such as GPS positioning, contactless payments and 2 docking stations integrated into charging facilities. 
The demonstration also supports promotional activities to raise awareness on EVs, introduce integrated electronic payment system with smart card (in public transport) and smart services for fleet management including an improved information system as well as proper operation and maintenance of vehicles (SOL+ MaaS App). The demonstration will also explore the feasibility to integrate renewables and improve the profitability of the charging business, such as Vehicle to Grid (V2G) applications, and business model on energy integration (Dynniq).

Trends and drivers

With the growing urbanisation and higher incomes, the demand for vehicles is increasing.  Vehicle registration – primarily private vehicles - is increasing tremendously, causing air pollution and health impacts. During 1990-2015, the number of total vehicles registration yearly grew by 14% per year (see Figure 1). Within this, during 1990-2014, the number of registered personal cars grew at 11%; the number of two wheelers grew at 12% (Department of Transport Management, 2014). Two-wheelers modal share has risen from 55% in 1991, to over 80% in 2014 (see Figure 2). By 2016, there were a total of 2,339,169 vehicles registered in Nepal. A major share of these vehicles is concentrated in the Kathmandu valley. The number of buses rose from 4000 units in 1990, to more than 35,000 units in 2015. This category includes full size buses, minibuses, microbuses and three-wheeler microbuses, called tempos. However, as a share of the total vehicle fleet, buses have declined from 11% of the total in 1990, to only 3% in 2015 due the rise of private vehicles (GGGI, 2018). According to recent data, the national public and private vehicle fleet, excluding commercial vehicles (like trucks and mini trucks, construction machines), contributes about 4.5 million tonnes CO2 emissions per year, and 1.9 million tonnes in the Kathmandu valley.

The Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu is the country’s capital and the largest city (population of 1 million), followed by Pokhara, Lalitpur, Bharatpur and Birgunj metropolitan cities (population above 200,000). The Kathmandu valley includes 3 cities – Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur with total area of 570 sq. km. The population of the valley is 2.5 million with annual growth rate of 4.63% (3.5 million unofficial). This represents 9.32% of entire population of country. Some of the initiatives on energy generation/conservation, sustainable transport and waste management in the valley are discussed below.

Road transport dominates transport infrastructure in Nepal (cars, bus, motorcycle and marginal non-motorised transport). In the Kathmandu Valley, the number of vehicles registered tremendously rose—an increase of over 12-fold from 45,871 in 1990/1991 to 570,145 in 2010/2011. The highest number of vehicles type in the valley was motorised two-wheelers. Air pollution was the second leading cause of death in one of the main hospitals of the Kathmandu Valley in 2011. To reduce air pollution in the Kathmandu Valley, these 3 measures are urgently required: improving vehicle speed, promoting public transportation, and introducing electric vehicles that could reduce public transportation energy demand by more than 60% (Shrestha, Shrestha, & Shrestha, 2017). Some electric cars and scooters have been introduced in cities. Electrically powered 3 wheeler e-Tuk-Tuk/e-rickshaw (Safa Tempo) is a successful example of public EV in Nepal (e.g. in Kathmandu and in southern part of Nepal), in operation since 1996. Currently, 1,200 e-rickshaws (Safa Tempos) run in Kathmandu (Shahi, 2017). Less than 100 electric cars are in the valley, mainly imported form India, China and South Korea (which is negligible compared to fossil-fueled cars). A few small electric cars are produced in Nepal by Hulas Motor Company as an experiment. Charging infrastructure is in very nascent state in Kathmandu (also in Nepal). Nepal Electrical Authority opened a demo charging station at its office in order to boost public interest in EVs. E-scooters are a solution to replace the growing and highly used fossil fueled scooters in the valley. Public transportation services, currently run by the private sector through individual operators, are still not adequate in the city. The addition of e-bus can improve accessibility and environment.

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