Repurposing Electric Vehicle Batteries
Emilie Martin (UEMI)
As the number of electric vehicles (EV) rapidly increases, the question of the end of life (EoL) management of their batteries becomes critical. Their EoL management can be separated in three main steps: repurposing or reusing batteries, repairing and refurbishing and finally recycling them (Figure 1). This factsheet covers repurposing also termed as the “second life” of the battery, corresponding to the following process: once a lithium-ion battery has reached the end of its automotive use (“first life”), usually estimated at a loss of between 20% and 30% of the initial capacity, it still has enough power (70%-80%) to be used for secondary applications as energy storage systems (ESS). Such uses cover a variety of purposes, including support for the integration of renewable energies in the grid, grid management including levelling demand peaks (“peak shaving”), back-up power or micro-grids. Hence, using second-hand EV batteries as ESS can be done in a variety of large and small-scale facilities including residential and commercial buildings, telecommunication towers, utilities.